Music theory for students, educators, and for uplifting gourmandizers
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Lavallée and Weir: O Canada
Includes a pivot modulation by common chord
Lennon and McCartney: Lady Madonna
Includes a direct modulation to the B section, then a modulation by chromatic pivot chord to the next verse.
Lennon and McCartney: Penny Lane
Includes pivot modulations by common chord and by common tone
Rodgers and Hart: Have You Met Miss Jones
Includes a series of tonicizations and turnaround chords
Schubert: Sonata for Arpeggione
Includes a direct modulation, a pivot modulation by common chord, and a pivot modulation by chord-quality change.
Beethoven: Sonata Op. 53 “Waldstein,” mov. 2
Includes a modulation by enharmonic common chord and two direct modulations between successive phrases.
Vivaldi: Spring from The Four Seasons, mov. 3
Includes a modulation by sequence
Beethoven: Symphony No. 5, mov. 2
Includes a pivot modulation by chord-quality shift, from major (A-flat) to augmented sixth (Ger+6). This may also be considered an enharmonic modulation from dom7 (A-flat7) to augmented sixth.
Robert Schumann: The Happy Farmer from Album for the Young
There is no modulation here; this example shows how a dominant chord may be tonicized just before a half cadence without forming a modulation.
Schubert: Der Wegweiser from Winterreise
Includes a pivot modulation by chord-quality shift, from major to minor.