Revised August 2014. For pedagogical context on solfège-to-video, you may wish to read the posting “Video Solfège: Creepy, But Effective!” on this site.
Each week’s prepared singing must be submitted to D2L Dropbox for credit. Here is an overview of the procedure:
Practice the melodies.
Video-record yourself performing a melody.
Upload the file to D2L Dropbox in the corresponding folder.
Repeat until all melodies due are submitted.
How to perform the melodies
Announce the melody number and/or title. Your video should have no other introductory chatter.
Orient in a key by playing a tonic pitch or series of chords on an instrument. Do not use the instrument to locate a non-tonic starting pitch (do this in your head).
Conduct while singing.
Each melody must be sung at an appropriate tempo, without stopping or restarting.
You are welcome to start over and re-record a melody as many times as you like until it is fully polished; only one video per melody should be submitted, however.
How to record and submit the melodies
On the “Course Home” page of your D2L section, there is a Kaltura module; click its “Contribute Media” link and follow instructions for video submissions there.
Videos must be submitted before the class in which they are due. Late submissions will not be accepted.
Many options are available for recording videos:
Kaltura is able to access a computer’s video camera and microphone to record videos. Upload the video to the correct D2L Dropbox folder via the Kaltura module.
If recording using Apple Photo Booth: Record the video, then export (File > Export) as a .mov file. Upload the video to the correct D2L Dropbox folder via the Kaltura module.
If recording using iPhone or iPad: Record the video and then upload the file directly from the device by logging in to D2L using your phone’s web browser, selecting the “desktop version” of the site and selecting the file from your photo library. NOTE: the auto-rotate feature on these devices may cause a video to play back upside down online unless you observe the following orientation rules:
On an iPad, use the camera with the screen facing you and be sure the iPad button is on the LEFT.
On an iPhone, use the camera with the screen facing you and be sure the iPad button is on the RIGHT.
If using other recording tools, check with your instructor to make sure that your submission files are acceptable.
How performances are evaluated
After the submission deadline, your professor will scan videos from each student to be sure they are being successfully received and can be viewed.
At mid-term, the professor will spot-check two videos per student at random and assign a single grade for the pair. The professor will provide feedback to each student, including noting which videos were reviewed.
At end-of-semester, the professor will spot-check two videos per student at random and assign a single grade for the pair. The professor will provide feedback to each student, including noting which videos were reviewed.
Incomplete or non-functioning videos will earn a score of zero.
Style: Relationship between any given piece and a musical genre
Technique: Difficulty of a composition • Amount of time it may take (or is allotted) to prepare for its performance
Harmony: Use of traditional vs. non-traditional harmonies • Use of tense/harsh/brash/complex harmonies vs. serene/pretty/simple harmonies • Stylistic connotations of harmonic types • Types of harmonic progression • Rate/naturalness/shock of harmonic change
Rhythm: Tempo • Musical spirit/character • Consistency/changing of spirit/character
Melody: Memorable vs. less-distinctive vs. absent melody • Melody’s integration with other musical layers • Melodic relationships from one passage to the next
Texture: Foreground vs. Background • Tone Colors • Counterpoint • Use/absence of purely rhythmic layers • Instrument combinations
Drama: Flow vs. pause • Continuity vs. surprise • Articulation and degrees of punctuation • Rates of change • Stability vs. instability • Balance • Overall duration
Beginning: How to begin • How the beginning leads into transition/continuation
Continuation: Contrast from one section to the next • Suspense
Climax: How climactic should it be? • Should the climax sustain, or should it depart quickly from it strongest point? • Should there be a dénouement?
Ending: How/if the ending relates to the other sections • How affirmative or ambiguous is the ending • What the final gesture should be
Last year, I tried out a technique for enhancing student engagement in online courses: crowd-sourcing representative examples of course topics.
Responding to a complaint from students that online quizzes were too difficult and extra credit options were needed, I offered students an opportunity to demonstrate comprehension by locating their own musical examples. This can be a tedious part of my work — finding “exemplary” musical passages that demonstrate each facet of a lesson. This way, I open up the possibility of getting something out of it, too; the best submissions can be incorporated into my course materials.
The process is simple: I create a Dropbox folder for each lesson in which students may submit three examples that fit specified constraints. One task, for example, was to submit (on annotated sheet music) three examples of musical modulations that exhibited different approaches: pivot modulation by common chord, direct modulation, and pivot modulation by change of chord quality. To earn full extra credit, they needed to find one of each and they needed to be correct and correctly labeled. Their examples also had to be unique among the class; no choosing a passage that had already been used by another student. If examples did not earn extra credit, the student may submit more batches of examples until they get it right, but only before the weekly unit quiz.
Once I received their files, I would add markup comments on their PDFs to show if each example was correct or incorrect, and make a note about why it was a good or weak example. Since the Dropbox folder is public, students could then examine their peers’ examples and learn from the successes and shortfalls.
A starting point for engaging students is picking a great example. With the right music, a student’s curiosity can be piqued and a great piece of music engaged. For almost any topic, I tend to follow these principles:
Find a single piece or whole section that illustrates all (or most) of the concepts of the lesson. Little excerpts don’t give students a chance to appreciate how the topic can affect a musical whole. It’s fun to analyze a whole piece or section of music since it feels like you are really unpacking the music; it’s hard to engage a single phrase of music and then another… and then another… and feel like you are doing much more than identification.
Famous tunes give the impression that theory class applies to “real” music (sorry: songs from Winterreise aren’t famous in most student circles). Children’s songs are often terrific. There is a chance that students might recognize Classical war-horses from having heard them in another class, a commercial, as a ring-tone (Turkish Rondo, anyone?). Continue reading →
Chord inversions are the second thing music students learn about chords, right after how to spell chords over a given root (what the pitches of D Major or F♯ Diminished is). For those who are new to the topic, follow this link.
Chord inversions are mostly taught by looking at chords in the easiest possible manner: as close-position triads or as block chords in simple four-voice chorales. When they are studied like this, students can quickly learn how to identify a chord’s position (either root position or inversion) and assign it a numeric label: 5/3 or 7 for root position, 6 or 6/5 for first inversion, and so forth.
It is much more difficult to apply the concept of inversions to music that doesn’t move in block chords, and in most music, the bass is elaborated in some way, complicating the matter. Sometimes they are ornamented with passing tones and such between “structural” tones, and when a bass line is genuinely florid (as in much classical or jazz music) it becomes very tricky indeed.
So, Why Do They Matter?
Why do we study chord inversions? To many students, it’s tedious busywork to parse the pitches that make up a chord, figure out which is lowest, and assign a numeric label. Some of the point may be to dwell a while on spelling chords. It is also an introduction to the idea of following one note of a chord to the next, which introduces the subject of voice-leading, which is often a primary concern of harmony courses (though that is increasing being considered “old-fashioned”).
The ability to read a chord symbol and name the pitches of its chord is an essential skill for all musicians. I use it constantly in all of my music theory, analysis and orchestration courses to quickly describe musical harmony while dispensing of the need to suss out harmony from a written-out texture. It is, of course, also the foundation of jazz and pop improvisation.
Students of classical music often do not learn how to interpret these symbols beyond plain triads, so I am providing this lesson as an introduction for those students.
It’s may seem like a huge stretch to find parallels between the music of Tin Pan Alley songsmith Irving Berlin and avant-garde postminimalist David Lang, but here’s a great meeting point in two pieces of music separated by more than 60 years: the use of systematic rhythmic permutation.
Cheating, Lying, Stealing (1993) was David Lang’s breakthrough piece, putting him on the map as a hugely influential composer. I remember hearing it for the first time back then and being dumbstruck by its visceral energy and rhythmic unpredictability. There’s something about its clangorous instrumentation — especially in its “rhythm section” of kick drum and brake drums — that I feel establishes a perfect balance of metric “orientation” and “disorientation.” I’m especially thinking about its first third (up to 3’50” on the Bang on a Can All-Stars recording) and its last minute (starting at 9’36”). For years, I never attempted to figure out if a pattern guided his process — I just marveled at the clanky rhythms.
There is a pattern under it all, of course, and it’s fun to figure out. SPOILER ALERT: I’m going to tell you what it is, so if you want to give it a shot first, here’s a tip. Skip the first two bars (the intro) and take the music in dictation, all in 4/4 meter, separating the treble and bass lines to consider separately. See if you can find what’s going on.
What do students learn about rhythm? Mostly these things, which are all essentials:
Rhythm (in most music…) is based on a series of steady “beats,” which are somehow organized into metric patterns (duple or triple, simple or compound, and so forth) based on surface patterns in the music.
Musical notes indicate relative duration: a whole note = two half notes = four quarter notes = eight eighth notes, and so on.
These notes may be organized to “play nicely” with the meter, or to “rub against” it, which would indicate a “pick-up,” a syncopation, or something called hemiola. Students should be able to define hemiola once and are not asked about it after their second week of school until the third semester, in which they will point it out in music by Brahms.
But that’s pretty much where rhythm ends in textbooks. Steven Laitz goes a little further by writing a few paragraphs on what makes rhythm… well… what makes rhythm. There is harmonic rhythm (patterns made from when harmony moves from chord to chord), there is change of musical patterning, and a few others based on changes in texture, dynamics, and register. It’s accompanied by a confusing diagram of eight bars from a Mozart sonata.
My students frequently don’t “get” what I try to convey for analyzing motive in musical compositions. The challenge is that there are two things that are important for this topic:
That motives can be located and that their transformations can be identified (look! it’s the motive from the beginning of the song! and it’s inverted!).
That motives can be a structural element of music, that they can be used cleverly, and that their appearances can help to bring grace, drama, and “logic” to music.
The first item is fairly easy for me to teach and fairly easy for my students to learn. I introduce a series of terms (transposition, inversion, retrograde, elaboration, truncation/fragmentation, and so forth) and isolate musical motives in a passage of music. If the examples are clear enough, any student can identify a method of transformation.
But the second item on that list is harder; it demands thoughtful musical analysis, making the student look within phrases, across phrases, up and down the musical texture, compare melody to harmony, and more. It’s a real challenge. And I haven’t figured out a great way to make this “testable.” Mostly what I tend to do is give a song in lead-sheet format (Mancini & Mercer’s MoonRiver and Rodgers & Hart’s Bewitched are favorites) and ask students this question: